Different cultures inhabited this area. For obvious reasons, it is difficult to categorize them exactly, and say were they were at any one time.
The inhabitants of this area were termed by archaeologists "Ancestral Puebloans" or "Anasazi", the latter term coming from a Navajo word meaning "The Ancient Ones" or "Ancient Enemies". They are thought to be the and are thought to be the ancestors of the Hopi, Zuni and Pueblo Indians and inhabited the Colorado Plateau.
They inhabited the area from Northern Chihuaha to the mountains of East Arizona and West New Mexico, and are thought to have developed from the earlier Conchise hunter-gatherer culture which flourished from 9000BC to 2100 BC. It has been claimed that they were the first people to introduce the farming of maize, due to their contacts with Mexico, but did not seem to have depended on it as significantly as their neighbours. After about 900AD, their culture started to merge with the Anasazi.
Both the Mogollan and the Anasazi are the ancestors of the modern Hopi, Zuni and Acoma tribes.
They inhabited the desert river valleys and areas on the Gila River floodplain south of Pheonix, and were believed to have emigrated from Mexico around 300B.C. However, a more modern interpretation believes that they developed from a local hunter-gatherer population with significant trade and cultural interaction with Mexico. They are famous for the irrigation canals that they built, upon some of which the present Pheonix canal system is founded. Farming consisted mainly of corn, beans, squash and cotton which was supplemented with small animals and birds. They were a peaceful people, and traded with both the Anasazi and the Mogollan.
These prehistoric people are thought to be the ancestors of the Yunman-speaking tribes of Western Arizona, and inhabited the mountains and desert river valleys, southwards to the Colorado River delta.
This "culture" is found mainly on the western Colorado Plateau and the eastern Great Basin, but also occurred throughout Utah. Differences between them and the Anasazi appears to focus mainly on a distinctive style of trapezoidal rock art, basket-weaving, moccasin making and grey pottery.
Flute player and humped-back pictographs and petroglyhs are especially prevalent in the Four Corners Area of America, where Utah, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico border on each other.
The yellow shading represents land held by the Bureau of Land Management, that in green is by the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
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